Fathering:  The Man and the Family

First Year Implementation Report

The Department of Health and Human Services Implementation Strategy
for President Clinton's Initiative
to Strengthen the Role of Fathers in Families

Prepared By The HHS Fathers' Work Group

May 1, 1997

I. INTRODUCTION

On October 16, 1995 the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) sent a report to the President outlining how DHSS intended to implement his memorandum asking that all federal agencies do more to strengthen the role of fathers in families. That report, Fathering: the Man and the Family, outlined a series of activities that various agencies in the Department would undertake individually and collaboratively to support and facilitate increased involvement by fathers with their families.

A. PRINCIPLES

The Fathers' Work Group identified five principles to guide both the Department's response to the President and any subsequent activities undertaken to strengthen and support the role of fathers in families. These principles are:

Government can encourage and promote father involvement through its programs and through its own workforce policies.

The activities of the Department in FY 96 demonstrate that these principles can help shape federal policy and programmatic directions to be more responsive to the needs of children and the parents--both mothers and fathers--who support and nurture them.

B. HIGHLIGHTS OF DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN FY 1996

Many different agencies have responded to the President's request with a wide variety of creative and innovative activities designed to promote fatherhood. The following list highlights some of the projects and programs the Department has initiated.

C. ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT

The remainder of this implementation report is organized into four sections. These sections reflect the four goals established in the Department's report, Fathering: The Man and the Family. These goals are:

Goal #1 DHHS will coordinate a comprehensive program strategy to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention and treatment, human development and welfare services for fathers and children through:

  1. increased collaboration across agencies to focus resources and target specific fathering opportunities;
  2. development of program improvements that enhance fathers' involvement in DHHS programs;
  3. improved customer service;
  4. greater visibility of father issues at national conferences and training events;
  5. an extended review that goes beyond the initial review of the Department's programs to examine DHHS statutory provisions, regulations, and administrative requests; and
  6. the development and incorporation of agency-specific father involvement performance measures.

Goal #2 DHHS will implement a research strategy that ensures that its research efforts appropriately investigate the roles of fathers in families and the effects of fathering on child well-being. The Department will also help inform broader government research collaborations on the importance of including research on fathers and fathering.

Goal #3 DHHS will use positive, supportive messages and language regarding fathers and fatherhood in all relevant publications and announcements.

Goal #4 DHHS will ensure that the workplace is supportive and responsive to the needs of all employees, including fathers, raising children.

II. PROGRAM COLLABORATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS

DHHS will coordinate a comprehensive program strategy to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention and treatment, human development and welfare services for fathers and children.

A. STRENGTHEN AGENCY COLLABORATIONS

The Fathers' Work Group has met monthly to provide ongoing leadership on fatherhood issues by reviewing and supporting interagency collaborative efforts. The Work Group has made agencies aware of fatherhood initiatives throughout the Department and has provided guidance to agencies for pooling resources to develop innovative approaches to serve. Special speakers also have been brought in to discuss activities within and outside the Department.

Members of the Fathers' Work Group include the following agencies: Administration for Children and Families, Office of Population Affairs, Indian Health Service, Health Resources and Services Administration, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Administration on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Office of Minority Health, Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget, Office of the Inspector General, Office of Civil Rights, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Legislation, and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

The Work Group has also had discussions with other cross-program initiatives, such as the Secretary's Governing Council on Children and Youth and the Violence Against Women Steering Committee. The following committees supported the Work Group's activities: Customer Services, Research and Communications.

B. INITIATE PROGRAM IMPROVEMENTS

All Departmental programs and policies should be sensitive to and supportive of children's need to have their fathers involved in their lives and activities. DHHS has tried to ensure that programs serving families welcome and expect father participation. Examples of the types of program improvements DHHS implemented to improve fathers' access to programs include the following:

1. Programs For Young Children

Head Start (ACF/ACYF)

Early Head Start. At least 18 of the 68 Early Head Start grantees that began operation October 1, 1995 are implementing specific father/male related activities and services. These include working with fathers at the Head Start centers in the evenings, organizing "Breakfast with Dad" programs, encouraging fathers to serve on Head Start policy councils, and establishing peer-led support groups. (Early Head Start serves children birth to age 3 and mothers-to-be.)

Head Start Region IV Collaboration. Region IV ACF and Head Start grantees are collaborating with Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and the Black College Alumni Hall of Fame Foundation to increase involvement of fathers and other significant males in Head Start. The grantees have provided training in leadership skills, parenting, family violence, substance abuse, child support responsibility, child abuse and neglect, business management, and health care, plus mentoring and support groups. Building on a Memorandum of Understanding signed in 1993, 30 programs were provided $10,000-$20,000 in seed funds in September 1995 to assist the Alpha's and National Black College Alumni Hall of Fame Foundation in its effort to increase male participation in Head Start.

Head Start Region VI Collaboration. Seven Region VI grantees are working in partnership with Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity on a regional male involvement initiative. Local Alpha Phi Alpha chapters have adopted local Head Start programs and plan to implement various projects designed to increase the involvement of males in various parenting activities. The grantees are using Head Start Training and Technical Assistance grant funds.

Head Start Region III. Three Head Start programs (in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia) are have significant male involvement initiatives.

In Washington, D.C., the Significant Male Task Force (SMTF) was launched in April 1994 by James Shird, the Chairperson of the D.C. Public Schools/ Consolidated Head Start Policy Committee. As a single Head Start parent with two children, Mr. Shird was concerned about actively involving fathers in the educational programs of their children. Mr. Shird created the task force to increase male visibility in the Head Start programs and actively involve men in the growth and development of their children.

The SMTF has since grown to include Head Start fathers, male staff, friends and supporters of the three Head Start grantees in the District (National Child Day Care Association [NCDCA], United Planning Organization [UPO] and the District of Columbia Public Schools [DCPS]), and a number of other community organizations. In addition to conducting monthly meetings at the Frederick Douglass Community Center to plan activities for increasing male involvement, the group is proud of its growth and of its accomplishments, which include hosting the first Father/Child Luncheon, with more than 30 participants in 1994; sponsoring an annual "Day with Santa" that grew from 1,200 children in 1994 to 1,500 children in 1995; conducting male empowerment workshops at the National and Regional Head Start Training Conference; sponsoring a "Community Day" in honor of Head Start's 30th anniversary celebration; hosting the first annual SMTF Conference in May 1996; and participating in the Million Man March in October 1995. Current SMTF activities focus on planning their 1996 "Day with Santa" and implementing a new literacy project, "Books and Looks," in cooperation with a local museum.

In Baltimore, the St. Bernadine Head Start, a delegate agency of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, has been actively involved in a Fatherhood Project with the Baltimore Urban League since 1985. Initially established to address issues of co-parenting for single mothers raising sons alone, the project has expanded to include services to address men's issues.

Through funding from Head Start, the Administration for Children and Families, the Families and Work Institute, the Rauch Foundation, and the United Way of Central Maryland, St. Bernadine has promoted male parenting skills enhancement, job training and placement opportunities, an Early Childhood Education Certification Program project, and a "father-friendly" environment throughout Baltimore area Head Start centers.

As a member of the National Practitioners Network for Fathers and Families, St Bernadine is currently developing a training model that will provide mediation assistance to fathers around child support and child visitation issues. Other Head Start programs fostering male involvement projects in the city of Baltimore include Morgan State University, Martin Luther King Parent Child Center and Emily Price Jones Head Start.

In Philadelphia, the Fathers Advocating Male Involvement In The Lives of Youth (FAMILY) is a male involvement initiative sponsored by the School District of Philadelphia's Pre-Kindergarten Head Start Program. The project was conceived in 1993 by a group of male volunteers who also served on the program's Policy Council. FAMILY seeks to increase male involvement in all activities in its preschool programs.

In keeping with their mission statement, "A Brotherhood of Men Empowering Each To Make A Difference," FAMILY has assisted in creating the national Policy Council training video "Linking Our Voices"; sponsored and conducted an all-Male Health Symposium and Fashion Show; increased training and mentorship for male volunteers in the program; conducted Male Parenting Classes; increased leadership roles and opportunities for males in the program's decision making process; and sponsored a Pre-Fathers' Day Annual Picnic.

The Council for Economic Opportunities in Greater Cleveland Inc., a Head Start grantee with an Enterprise Zone within its service area, has been promoting volunteerism and service on Parent Policy Council/Committees for the past several years. The grantee is now sponsoring targeted recruitment efforts and special Fatherhood participation and recognition events, including dinners and breakfasts. More and more Head Start fathers are volunteering and participating in the program. An example of a success of this effort was the encouragement of a physically disabled father to volunteer in Head Start and to eventually seek and find employment. He told his story during a recent fatherhood recognition event and complimented Head Start for its welcoming and encouraging atmosphere that helped him to change his life. The Council's latest initiative is called "Men to Boys," which is an effort to recruit 50 men in the community to relate to and act as mentors to Head Start boys. The initiative was suggested by a Head Start father who is a volunteer.

Healthy Start (HRSA/MCHB)

Most of the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) 22 Healthy Start projects have implemented various strategies to improve fathers' involvement in the care of their pregnant partner, their family, the neighborhood, and the community. The following are a sampling:

Male support groups. Based on several years' experience, Baltimore Healthy Start has developed and widely disseminated a curriculum and trainer's manual for conducting support groups for fathers. Baltimore currently has three such support groups, with the participant age range from 14 to 42. Issues such as anger control, discipline, and coping when their infant's siblings have other fathers. Male support groups are also utilized in Savannah, Birmingham, Cleveland, Oakland, and Mississippi.

Outreach programs. Most of the Healthy Start projects have outreach components that employ and train male outreach workers to help fathers gain access to community services and activities.

Male mentoring program. Mississippi has implemented a male mentoring program for young teens wherein adult men in the community are trained to provide individual and group mentoring activities with male adolescents both after school and during the summer months. Several Healthy Start projects have implemented "Midnight Basketball" programs, where male mentoring and health education activities are conducted in neighborhood gyms/courts by contractors or trained volunteers at half-times and between games.

Adolescent activities. Several Healthy Start projects offer teen activities for male and female groups to address teens' individual needs, provide information on teen pregnancy and abstinence, and get them actively involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of community project activities. Several male teens are involved in teen theater/ drama troupes and peer mentoring programs, which the projects use to get information and services into the school systems.

Males-only clinic. Savannah is experimenting with a (Saturday) Males-Only clinic, where medical (including sports physicals), social and mental health services and counseling (including substance abuse, STDs, and HIV/AIDS), are provided to teen and adult men at one location.

2. Health and Mental Health Services

Under HRSA's Public Housing Primary Care program, two grantees are implementing two activities relevant to fathers:

At the Grace Hill Neighborhood Health Center, St. Louis, MO, the "Mentor Mom and Mentor Dad Program" provides health care and other support services to pregnant teen females and teen fathers. The services are to ensure that the mother has a healthy pregnancy outcome. However, major emphasis is directed toward teen fathers, who receive counseling relative to family values, responsibilities of a father, educational opportunities, etc., and are assisted with job referrals. Family outings are also a key component of the program. The outings allow time for the mother, father and child to get together as a family unit.

The Clinic in Altgeld, Inc., Chicago, IL provides health care and other support services to residents of the Altgeld Gardens-Murray Homes public housing community. A major initiative of the clinic's social services component is the ongoing support provided to the Men's Group. The group was established by adult male residents of the community and includes a significant number of fathers. Structured workshops and group discussions are offered on topics like family responsibilities, employment, health education and healthy life styles, coping, and alcohol abuse.

Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. The Office of Population Affairs provided $30,000 in funding support to each region for the development of pilot projects designed to postpone premature fatherhood. Believing that young men must be able to perceive reasons to avoid early fatherhood, as well as have the information and services to be able to do so, these projects employ adolescent males in existing Title X family planning clinics to provide on-the-job training in clinic operation and allied health occupations and provide education about male responsibility, family planning and reproductive health. Each regional office responded to this initiative by selecting and funding at least one project; several regions supplemented the OPA share and funded several projects. In all, approximately 25 of these one-year projects were funded in FY 1996. The Office of Population Affairs plans to continue this initiative in FY 1997.

Fathers' involvement in mental health programs. The SAMHSA's Center for Mental Services (CMHS) is promoting the specific involvement of fathers and other male care givers in its projects serving children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbances and their families. For example, the project officer for the CMHS's 28 statewide family network support projects organized and facilitated two workshops on why male care givers tend not to be involved, and on how to facilitate and support their involvement. The SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) funds some High Risk Youth projects that demonstrate role models for young African-American males, e.g. Male Responsibility in Detroit.

3. Initiatives for Non-Resident Parents

Services for Non-Resident Fathers

ACF/OPRE has grants in five communities for projects designed to strengthen the roles and parenting skills of fathers, most of whom do not live with their children. The demonstration projects are designed to help fathers define their roles within their families, teach them how to understand their children's development and needs, and show them how to positively affect their children's behavior. The five projects are: the Addison County (VT) Parent Child Center, Wishard Memorial Hospital (IN), St. Bernadine's Head Start (MD), and Responsible Fatherhood Replication Projects in Washington, D.C. and San Diego, CA.

The Office of Child Support Enforcement made a supplemental grant to the Colorado Model Office enabling it to establish a partnership with the Paternity Outreach Project. The purpose of the partnership is to test methods of providing services such as peer support and mediation to unmarried parents, and their effectiveness in increasing voluntary paternity establishment and family formation.

Child Access and Visitation. The Office of Child Support Enforcement is implementing a provision of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 to fund State programs for Child Access Programs. The provision gives States $10 million a year and considerable flexibility in deciding what services can best enhance a strong parent-child relationship and encourage a team approach to parenting, even by parents who live apart. The provision is virtually identical to a provision in President Clinton's proposed Work and Responsibility Act of 1994.

Promote Economic/Job Support for Fathers

ACF/OPRE continues to manage the federal support for and monitor the Parents Fair Share Demonstration (PFS), which is testing employment and training services, peer support, enhanced child support enforcement and mediation services for unemployed, noncustodial parents whose children receive AFDC. ACF, along with ASPE, DOL and USDA, continues to provide technical assistance to the program sites and assists the evaluator, MDRC. The first implementation report will be issued in 1997.

Additional States received waivers to provide services to non-custodial parents through the JOBS program; by the end of FY 1996, nineteen states had such waivers. ACF/OPRE has advised the Urban Institute in it's review and assessment of state projects targeting non-custodial parents.

A provision in Title III of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 directs states to require unemployed non-custodial parents with child support arrearages to develop repayment plans or participate in work activities. PFS and state waiver projects will provide states with important information on implementation of this provision.

4. Prevention of Minority Male Violence

The Office of Minority Health is coordinating activities with a Consortium for Research and Practicum formed by 19 Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This consortium has assumed major responsibility and lead role in developing and designing solutions to reduce anti-social behavior and violence affecting minority males and their families through the development of a comprehensive and community-based collaborative model program that would inhibit anti-social behavior and redirect individual energy towards strengthening families, particularly African-American and Latino. As part of the community-based activity, some schools have implemented programs that encompass fathers. The Family Life Centers recognize that a father plays an important role in the foundation of a child's development. Some of the programs involving fathers are shown below:

LeMoyne-Owen College. The Family Life Center (FLC) at LeMoyne-Owen College began as a program for boys (REAL MEN). After discussions with the Advisory Board, FLC initiated additional programs, including the DADS program, designed to provide dads with an opportunity to discuss the needs, concerns, and interests of fathers in the context of "it takes a whole family to raise a child." The fathers meet twice a month to discuss such topics as dealing with male anger, drug awareness, self esteem building, ways to provide support for children, and how to become more productive fathers. In addition, the DADS are also discussing recent laws relating to fathers and their support of their children.

Chicago State University. During the summer of 1996, Chicago State University's Family Life Center provided several male involvement workshops with African American fathers for the Ounce of Prevention fund and the Center for Successful Development. These workshops were designed to prepare fathers to participate in a Naming Ceremony for their children; and better understand their roles as fathers, and accept the responsibility that goes with fatherhood.

Philander Smith College. This Family Life Center support group (Mother to Mother Plus the Brothers) is comprised of family members of program participants. The support group meets monthly to implement Family Night, organize fundraisers, engage in rap sessions, and sponsor field trips. The fathers assist with fundraising activities and provide ideas to improve program activities. The objective of the parent support group is to provide an enriching environment for the development of healthy family units. Philander Smith College's goal is to obtain 100% parent participation. FLC is planning workshops on the Development of the Black Child, Strengthening Multi-Ethnic Families and Communities, and Violence Prevention Education Training.

More information on the Consortium and its activities can be found in appendix A.

5. Improve Customer Service

Customer Services Committee. The Consumer Services Committee, chaired by OCSE, examined DHHS programs to identify barriers that prevent or hinder fathers' access to services and involvement with their children and families, including legal, legislative, programmatic, attitudinal and cultural barriers. They have also been developing means to ensure that fathers as "consumers" are involved in discussions of service needs and delivery. The Customer Services Committee was instrumental in facilitating and supporting a number of activities across the Department, including a meeting with practitioners to discuss barriers to service delivery. (See appendix B for information on identified barriers).

Non-custodial Parent Focus Groups. The Health Care Finance Administration has contracted with Academy Concepts, Inc. of Baltimore, MD to conduct three focus groups to identify barriers to custodial and non-custodial parents participating more fully in health care decisions for their children. HCFA will identify the kinds of information parents want to help them make better health care decisions for their children and how that information can best be made available to them. These focus groups have been completed and a report will be completed soon. Because these focus groups all took place in an urban setting, negotiations are under way to conduct three similar focus groups in a rural setting.

Consumer Satisfaction Survey. OCSE has reached consensus with its state partners on the content of customer satisfaction surveys, which will include information from non-custodial parents. These activities will begin in FY 1997.

III. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

DHHS will ensure that its research efforts appropriately investigate the roles of fathers in families and the effects of fathering on child well-being and help inform broader government research collaborations on fathers and fathering.

A. ESTABLISH INTER-AGENCY RESEARCH COMMITTEE

The Fathers' Work Group established an Interagency Research Committee to improve communications and collaboration on research on and about fathers, fathering and the role of fathers in families. The Research Committee met periodically to share research activities and to help guide the inter-departmental research efforts that are discussed below. The Research Committee's efforts are now focused on completing the larger research effort on fathering and male fertility. Agency members of the DHHS Research Committee are the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Child Care Bureau and the Office of Child Support Enforcement in ACF, the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Mental Health in NIH, the National Center for Health Statistics in CDC, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, HRSA's Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. The Research Committee was co-chaired by OASPE and NICHD.

B. FEDERAL INTERAGENCY FORUM ON CHILD AND FAMILY STATISTICS

The Federal Interagency Forum (DHHS, DOL, DOE, DOC/Bureau of the Census) has undertaken a multi-year effort to assess the strengths and limitations of the data currently available on fathers from federal agencies and to develop an agenda for improving the way these data on fathers and fathering are conceptualized, measured and collected. The efforts of the Federal Interagency Forum Fatherhood Project are being funded by NICHD, the NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Network, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and the Ford Foundation, and supported by staff efforts from the Forum member. This effort is a unique partnership between the federal statistical agencies that collect information, the academic community that analyzes the data, the users of the of research for policy development both within and outside the government, and foundations concerned about the role of fathers in children's lives.

Town Meeting on Fathering and Male Fertility. In March 1996, the Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics sponsored a Town Meeting on Fathering and Male Fertility to elicit the views of scholars, state officials, congressional staff, and advocates on improving the federal government's approach to gathering data on fathers. Testimony was received by the leadership of the federal agencies responsible for collecting data on children and families, who in turn raised questions and offered suggestions of their own. A report on the findings from the town meeting was published and widely disseminated.

Conference on Developmental, Ethnographic and Demographic Perspectives on Fatherhood. The June 1996 conference examined what is known about fathers and their interactions with their children from developmental, anthropological, ethnographic and demographic perspectives. Presenters offered perspectives and insights from each research tradition and explored the American cultural and ethnic contexts of fathering. The conference also examined surveys on fatherhood that combined qualitative and quantitative research approaches and explored ways to integrate approaches and findings from small-scale qualitative studies with data from large-scale surveys. Participants discussed the conceptual and analytical challenges to combining developmental, ethnographic and demographic methodologies. A summary of this conference was prepared and disseminated.

Research Conference on Father Involvement. On October 10-11, 1996 the NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Network sponsored a conference at the Natcher Conference Center on the NIH Campus in Bethesda Maryland. The papers and discussions at this conference focused on what can be learned from about father involvement using large-scale data sources and quantitative research methods. The conference was followed by a half day workshop on methodological issues.

Establishment of Working Groups. Four working groups will use the information coming from the conferences and meetings on fatherhood and from private efforts, such as the National Center for Fathers and Families and the National Fatherhood Institute, to develop explicit recommendations on how to improve the federal statistics in regard to data on male fertility and fathering. Members of the working groups consist of experts from academia, government and the private sector. The groups will produce working papers that will be presented at a conference in March of 1997. The recommendations coming from the working groups and the conference will be brought to the Forum for consideration at their spring 1997 meeting. A full description of the Working Groups and March Conference is at appendix C.

C. NEW AND CONTINUING RESEARCH PROJECTS
1. National Institutes of Health

The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is doing research on family interactions and parenting behaviors that may affect children's drinking and other high-risk behaviors. Includes studies on:

The National Institute of Mental Health is conducting research emphasizing four major themes:

  1. the father's role and impact on the well-being of children and adolescents
  2. the positive and negative components of parenting behaviors related to their children's physical and mental illnesses
  3. intervention studies to help parents prevent stress or improve functioning of children
  4. marital relationships: healthy and pathological behaviors.

To understand the nature and contributions of fathers to the mental health and adjustment of family members, researchers are studying a range of issues, including factors related to a father's contribution, ways to decrease the risk of emotional problems in children, the significant components of parent education, and ways to prevent HIV infection in families. NIMH has also developed initiatives to encourage more fathers to participate in research through extensive outreach efforts, including providing monetary incentives to participate, scheduling assessments that are more convenient to family work schedules, and spending additional time developing rapport and talking with both parents.

The National Institute of Drug Abuse has three research projects examining:

  1. fathers' substance use and its impact on their role in the care and discipline of their children;
  2. the role of the father in adolescent development and adolescent drug use;
  3. the impact of a father's HIV status on his child's coping and drug use.

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is conducting behavioral and demographic research on fatherhood and its relationship to family and child well-being, including fathers' economic contributions, psychological ties to children, child care provision, co-residence, patterns of contact, and impact of various care-giving practices on the emotional and social development and cognitive competence of children at different stages of development. Specifically, NICHD supports research on such topics as:

2. Centers for Disease Control

CDC has cooperative agreements to evaluate violence prevention programs with the following institutions:

The Resource Development Institute (Kansas City, MO) will implement and evaluate an intervention directed at training inmate parents (80% male) in parenting skills, child development, anger control and conflict resolution. Follow-up interviews will be conducted with the inmates, their children and the children's care givers to assess violent behavior by the inmates and their children, subsequent arrests, parenting behavior, and substance abuse.

The Jacksonville (Florida) Children's Commission will implement and evaluate a day care center-based intervention that will also provide 1) in-home visitation services and support to the parents of high-risk children between the ages of 3 and 5; and 2) "family events" designed to promote interaction between parents, encourage parent involvement in their child's earliest "school" experience, and provide parenting information.

San Francisco State University will implement and evaluate a child care center-based intervention that will include the development of "parent partnerships" (i.e, family support groups) to facilitate positive interaction between parents and their children by developing parenting skills and access to services. Children between the ages of 3 and 10 who attend child care centers in five Bay Area counties, and their families, are the target group for this intervention.

The University of South Carolina School of Medicine will implement and evaluate a family-based intervention supported by a multi-faceted intervention to create a pro-social school environment. The family intervention will include parental skill-building, positive home-school linkage, and support with limited advocacy for caregivers of high-risk (aggressive) children between the ages of 6 and 8.

3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The SAMHSA also funds and carries out various data collection and analysis efforts that support the goal of improving services for children and adolescents who have, or are at risk for, serious emotional disturbances and substance abuse. For example, SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies supported a study that found a significantly higher rate of substance abuse among adolescents in all forms of single-parent and stepparent families when compared to families with two biological parents, even when controlled for race/ethnicity and income.

4. Administration for Children and Families

ACF is sponsoring a nationwide evaluation of the Early Head Start (EHS) program. One component of that evaluation is an examination of the involvement of fathers and adult males in children's EHS participation. There are currently two studies planned for this area:

A description of program emphases and goals relative to fathers in 17 research sites;

Interviews of primary caregivers and children on father-related issues and concerns.

In addition, some individual sites will conduct more in-depth studies of father involvement, including focus groups, measurement of differences between treatment and comparison groups, and observational studies. Discussions to expand these efforts are underway.

5. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Evaluability Assessment of Responsible Fatherhood Programs. OASPE and the Ford Foundation are jointly funding a project to develop an evaluation strategy for community-based father projects. These projects are often small (a few hundred clients per year) and receive their funds from a variety of sources: Federal, State, and local government sources, foundations, religious institutions, and other community organizations. Because there is no one model for fatherhood programs, evaluations can be difficult. This project is being undertaken in collaboration with ACF, which funds some of the fatherhood projects included in this assessment. A report is due by the end of 1996.

Financial Situations of Low-Income Non-Custodial Fathers. The University of Texas-Austin Center for Social Work Research has a grant to examine the ability and willingness of low-income, non-residential fathers to participate, both financially and otherwise, in the lives of their children. There is a widespread perception among policy makers that low-income, non-residential fathers do not participate in the lives of their children, and that stricter enforcement mechanisms are needed to ensure, at a minimum, financial participation. The Center's research will identify specifically: the financial strategies employed by low-income men who are non-residential fathers; the earning and expenditure strategies of low-income, non-residential fathers; the degree to which fathers' strategies vary by ethnicity and setting; and the ways in which fathers' contributions are related to mothers' welfare status. Importantly, this research will interview men directly instead of relying on mothers' reports of fathers' behavior. Methodology involves ethnographic interviews of 90 men twice during the year to collect data that includes: fully balanced budget of cash income and expenditures; life history and critical incident accounts of low-income fathers' survival strategies; and an assessment of the degree to which strategies change over the year period.

The Effects of Child Support in a Low-Benefit Welfare State. The University of Texas at Austin/ Center for the Study of Human Resources has a grant to examine how the award and collection of child support in a low-benefit state influences welfare exits and recidivism. In addition, the study looks at the combined influence of child support and earnings in removing families from poverty and/or keeping them from returning to the welfare rolls. Given the potential for a "race to the bottom" under block grants, a better understanding of the relationship between child support, earnings and welfare dynamics is critical to helping families become self-sufficient. The study has national significance in that it examines the viability of combining child support and earnings of both parents as an alternative to welfare. Methodology involves analyzing linked state administrative data sets, including AFDC caseload records, child support enforcement data, unemployment insurance wage records, and JOBS program participation records.

5. Interagency Sponsorship

The Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Health have jointly-funded a project with the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research that serves 6,000 high-risk African-American and Latino youth aged 7-13 in Chicago and Aurora, Illinois. The purpose of the project is to implement and evaluate a multilevel intervention which combines classroom-based training on the factors that influence peer and other social relationships with weekly family therapy sessions for high-risk children and their families. The therapy sessions aim to modify family assumptions and behaviors regarding behavior management, emotional support, and communication. The families participate in a 24-week program during the first year to develop the motivation and skills that will help them support their children in developing nonviolent behavior. While NIH supported (and supports) its implementation, CDC supported the evaluation of this project for the past three years, and CDC recently funded a competing continuation to support three more years of data collection and analyses.

Additionally, NICHD supports the Early Childhood Research Network, a consortium of 18 researchers that focuses on the study of early child care. During 1996, six of these researchers received funding from the Administration for Children, Youth and Families that was specifically dedicated to the study the fathers of children enrolled in these studies. Studies designed to capture data on fathers include understanding the marital or partner relationship and the involvement of the father as factors in decisions about child care, time use during nonworking family time, the quality of care the child receives in the home and in the day care setting, and the course of the child's social, emotional and cognitive development.

ASPE and NICHD are jointly funding an expansion of the information collected on fathers and from fathers in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The PSID is a nationally representative, longitudinal study of individuals in the United States. The expansion will include collecting identical information from custodial and non-custodial parents on child support, custody and visitation issues and collecting information on fathering behaviors from both residential and non-residential fathers.

D. RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

1. National Institutes of Health

Belsky J, Woodworth S, Crnic K (In press). Troubled family interaction during toddlerhood. Development and Psychopathology. (NIMH)

Jain A, Belsky J, Crnic K (In press). Beyond fathering behaviors: Types of dads. Journal of Family Psychology. (NIMH)

Kazak A.E., Barakat LP, Meeske K. Stuber MD. (In press). Post traumatic stress, family functioning, and social support in survivors of childhood leukemia and their mothers and fathers. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology. (NIMH)

Lamb ME. Fathering in America: New challenges and champions.Contemporary Psychology, 1996; 41: 911. [Book review] (NICHD)

Lamb ME. L'influence du pere sur le developpement de l'enfant. [Paternal influences on child development]. Enfance, in press. (NICHD)

Lamb ME. Paternal influences on child development. In: M.C.P. van Dongen, G. A. B. Frinking, & M. J. G. Jacobs (Eds.), Changing fatherhood: An interdisciplinary perspective. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Thesis Publishers, 1995; 145-157 (NICHD)

Lamb ME. Review of "Divergent realities: the emotional lives of mothers, fathers and adolescents." Social Service Review, 1996; 70:489-490. [Book review] (NICHD)

Lamb ME. Review of "Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1996; 58: 526-527. [Book review] (NICHD)

Lamb ME. The development of father-infant relationships. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (Third edition). New York: Wiley, 1996;104-120; 332-342 (NICHD)

Lamb, ME. (Ed.) The role of the father in child development (Third edition). New York: Wiley, 1996. (NICHD)

Lamb ME. The role of the father in child development: an introductory overview and guide. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (Third edition). New York: Wiley, 1996;1-18; 309-313) (NICHD)

Lamb ME, Billings LL. Fathers of children with special needs. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (Third edition). New York: Wiley, 1996;179-190; 356-360 (NICHD)

Sternberg KJ. Fathers, the missing parents in research on family violence. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development. New York: Wiley, 1996. (NICHD)

Sternberg KJ, Lamb ME, Dawud-Noursi S. Understanding domestic violence and its effects: Making sense of divergent reports and perspectives. In G. W. Holden, R. Geffner, & E. W. Jouriles (Eds.), Children exposed to family violence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, in press. (NICHD)

Sternberg KJ, Lamb ME, Dawud-Noursi S. Using multiple informants and cross-cultural research to study the effects of domestic violence on developmental psychopathology: Illustrations from research in Israel. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Cicchetti, & J. Weisz (Eds.),Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on risk and disorder. New York: Cambridge University Press, in press. (NICHD)

2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Johnson RA, Hoffmann JP, Gerstein DR. The Relationship Between Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Abuse. National Opinion Research Center under contract with the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington DC: 1996


3. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Nord CW, Zill N. Non-custodial Parents' Participation in their Children's Lives: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, Volumes I and II. Westat, Inc., under contract with the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: 1996

4. Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Doherty WJ, Kouneski EF, Erickson MF. Responsible Fathering: An Overview and Conceptual Framework. University of Minnesota and the Lewin Group under contract with the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: 1996

5. Office of Minority Health

Perkins UE. Factors Contributing to Gang Membership and Participation, and other articles.Challenge-A Journal of Research on African American Men, Special Edition for The MIN-MALE Consortium. Atlanta, Morehouse College:1996.

IV. COMMUNICATIONS

DHHS will use positive, supportive messages and language regarding fathers and fatherhood in all publications and announcements.

A. FEDERAL CONFERENCE

The Domestic Policy Council, the National Performance Review, and DHHS sponsored a Federal Conference on Strengthening the Role of Fathers in Families May 3, 1996 at the National Institute of Health's Natcher Conference Center in Bethesda Maryland. More than 300 federal staff members attended, and Vice President Al Gore gave the keynote address.

DHHS played a key role in organizing the conference and in developing and participating in the 15 workshops. Federal agency partners included the Departments of Education, Defense, Transportation, and Justice. Support was also provided by the National Center for Fathers and Families, the Ford Foundation, and the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Assistant Secretary Peter Edelman represented DHHS at the opening session with Vice President Gore, profiling the Healthy Start program. Other DHHS programs and agencies were represented in eight of the fifteen workshops. These include: Head Start and Early Head Start, Child Care, Child Support Enforcement, Parent' Fair Share (a demonstration program managed by the Administration for Children and Families), Children's Bureau, Office of Community Services, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Office of Population Affairs, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Two Federal Conference workshop examples:

Sheila Tucker of Baltimore's St. Bernadine's Head Start (an ACF Responsible Fatherhood grantee) presented "Fathers' Roles in Children's Learning: Models That Work," at a workshop co-chaired by ACYF's Child Care Bureau Associate Commissioner, Joan Lombardi. Tucker described a successful Head Start program that involves fathers in pre-school children's learning, and can be adapted for use by agencies and their staff on-site or in the community. Other panelists were from the Department of Education and its Even Start and Title I program.

The Child Care Bureau sponsored and conducted a workshop on Fathers In Early Child Care. The sessions focused on best strategies to involve fathers in child care services and child development programs, and increase their awareness of the benefits children derive from male participation. The workshop provided practical information on how to get fathers involved in early childhood programs, how to promote staff-father interactions, and how to create specific strategies that increase opportunities for father to become involved.

A copy of the agenda and workshops for the Federal Conference on Strengthening the Role of Fathers in Families is included in appendix D.

B. OTHER CONFERENCES, MEETINGS AND TRAINING

In addition to the Department's participation in the May 3 conference with Vice President Gore, agencies have promoted the importance of including father issues and concerns in the agendas of national conferences and government training events. The information below indicates some of the DHHS agencies many activities to support and promote fatherhood in the last year. Research conferences and related activities were highlighted separately in the previous section of the report.

1. Administration for Children and Families

Office of Child Support Enforcement

OCSE and the State IV-D Directors, through their Coalition Building Committee, have been promoting linkages with other professional organizations and groups. For example, last May, the Committee had representatives speak on issues relating to child support at the Family Resource Coalition Meeting in Chicago.

The National Child Support Enforcement Association's 45th Annual Training Conference included a number of panels on fatherhood issues, including: promotion of responsible fatherhood among economically vulnerable noncustodial fathers; the link between father presence and child well-being; welfare reform waivers and the extension of JOBS programs to noncustodial parents; and the impact of child support enforcement on parenting.

Child Care Bureau

In February 1996, the Child Care Bureau held a national Family Centered Child Care Conference for over 200 participants, including state child care administrators, child care providers, national organizations, parents' groups and parents. One of the workshop tracks focused on the role of fathers in early child care. The groups developed recommendations and action steps that, if implemented, would encourage the participation of fathers in child care programs and services. The proceedings of those workshops, when finalized will, be distributed to all of the participants and made available to the broader public through our National Child Care Information Center.

In August, 1996 the Child Care Bureau conducted a set of father involvement workshops during its annual Tribal Child Care Conference in Denver. Over 100 participants from tribes nationwide were presented models of culturally appropriate practices for the involvement of fathers and other adult male figures in child care services available on or near the reservation.

2. National Institutes of Health

In December 1995, NIAAA sponsored a meeting entitled, "Alcohol in the Family: Opportunities for Prevention." Alcohol and family researchersdiscussed current findings related to the role of the family, including fathers, in the etiology and prevention of alcohol-related problems, and identified opportunities for family-based preventive interventions. A publication of these proceedings is forthcoming.

An NICHD intramural investigator presented a paper entitled "What's a Father For?," as a keynote address to an invitational conference on British fatherhood in London in April 1966 and as an invited presentation to the conference on Developmental, Ethnographic and Demographic Perspectives on Fatherhood in October 1966.

An NICHD extramural program officer chaired a symposium on Research Strategies for the Study of Underrepresented Families and Children Affected by Developmental Disabilities in March 1996. The symposium included discussions regarding the methodology for recruiting and retaining fathers, and other male family members, of children with disabilities from various minority groups. Additionally, the program officer served as a discussant for a Symposium on Research with Fathers at the joint session of the National Conference of American Academy of Mental Retardation and the American Association on Mental Retardation held in May 1996.

Results of the NICHD study of early child care relating to infant child care and attachment security were presented by the NICHD staff and participating collaborating grantees in the NICHD Early Child Research Network at the International Conference on Infant Studies held in April, 1996.

3. Health Resources and Services Administration

Maternal and Child Health Bureau

A communications conference call was held Sept. 7, 1995, in which some 22 participants from Healthy Start sites around the country learned about male involvement initiatives at the Baltimore, Savannah and Philadelphia sites.

With funding from HRSA, the Institute for Family-Centered Care of Bethesda, MD, has brought together families caring for children with HIV/AIDS at an annual skill-building Family Leadership Conference. The conference offers special programs for fathers of children with HIV, and the opportunity to meet with each other and with a national leader in developing support programs for fathers of children with special health care needs. Attendee families typically return to their communities with skills and information to share with providers and local organizations.

4. Office of Minority Health

The First National Conference for Family and Community Violence Prevention Atlanta, Georgia, October 1-3, 1995. The First National Conference Proceeding included the presentation on The Role of Fathers in Violence Prevention, by Mr. Charles Ballard, President & Founder; Institute for Responsible Fatherhood and Family Revitalization, Washington, D.C.

5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration.

The Center for Mental Health Services has promoted the specific involvement of fathers and other male caregivers in its projects serving children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbances and their families through the provision of several workshops for its statewide family network projects. These workshops were on why male caregivers tend not to be involved and how to facilitate and support their involvement.

6. Agency on Aging

Pursuant to a resolution from the 1995 White Conference on Aging that encouraged the provision of support services for grandparents who are raising children, AOA conducted a regional meeting in California that discussed issues around grandparents being primary caretakers of their grand children.

C. PUBLICATIONS AND NEWSLETTERS

1. Administration for Children and Families

Head Start published and widely disseminated A Head Start Handbook of Parent Involvement: Vision and Strategies, expanding on the theme of "Valuing the Involvement of Parents: The Head Start Vision." The Handbook provides resources and references on getting men more actively involved in Head Start programs. The new publication, released in the spring of 1996, builds on the Head Start conceptual framework initially conceived at the 1993 National Head Start Parent Involvement Institute.

The Office of Child Support Enforcement's flagship publication Child Support Report published numerous father-related articles in FY 1996. Examples include:

"Kenosha County Paternity Outreach": Wisconsin county's success with new paternity outreach worker position in child support agency. (October 1995)

"Region II Sponsors Parental Responsibility Media Contest": ACF New York Regional Office honors 40 New Jersey high school students for art, photography, and video presentations on parental responsibility. (November 1995)

"DHHS Report on Supporting the Role of Fathers in Families": Highlights of the report "Fathering: the Man and the Family." (December 1995)

"UPBEAT Parents": Highlights Trumbull County, Ohio's efforts to highlight non-custodial parents who demonstrate positive shared parenting, including maintaining their financial obligations. (January 1996)

"Fatherhood Can be Child's Play": Michigan's statewide fatherhood responsibility campaign features Detroit Lions football players appearing in television, newspaper, calendar, and outdoor advertising campaign. (February 1996)

"Dad's Count in Merced County": Merced County, California wins statewide "Dads Count" campaign with positive approach to collecting child support payments and getting fathers more involved in their children's lives. (March 1996)

"Illinois Child Support Thanks Moms and Dads": Chicago Children's Museum displays children's winning art and verse contest honoring non-custodial parents who take an active role in their children's lives. (May 1996)

"Fathers and the Family": Highlights of Vice President Gore's appearance before the National Performance Review/National Domestic Council/DHHS conference on fatherhood in May. (June 1996)

The Office of Community Services and the Office of Child Support Enforcement are producing Strengthening Fathers, a collection of summary evaluations from projects funded by the Office of Community Services under its Demonstration Partnership Program. The projects focus on minority males, youth-at-risk, and family development, and deal with important issues and barriers relating directly to the ability of these populations to attain self-sufficiency and meet their parental and family responsibilities.

2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Association

The Research and Training Center, funded by SAMHSA and the Department of Education, published a special edition of Focal Point, the Center's newsletter on fathers of children with special needs (Fall 1995).

D. OUTREACH

1. Dialogue With Fathers' Groups

National Center for Fathers and Families: Staff from the Office of Child Support Enforcement, the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation have participated in the round tables sponsored by NCOFF. These round tables are designed to create a dialogue between the fatherhood research community and those individuals responsible for developing and operating community-based father involvement programs. DHHS funded researchers, and staff from programs such as Healthy Start and Parents' Fair Share have participated.

Practitioners: The DHHS Fatherhood Work Group met with practitioners on May 13, 1995 to discuss barriers to fathers' access to DHHS programs. Practitioners in attendance included Charles Ballard, National Institute for Responsible Fatherhood, Washington, DC; Jerry Hamilton, Disadvantaged Programs, Goodwill Industries, Racine, WI; Joe Jones, Healthy Start, Baltimore, MD; Wallace Mc Laughlin, Wishard Memorial Hospital, Indianapolis, IN; Ed Pitt, National Practitioners Network, NY, NY; Benjamin Powell, Inwood House, Bronx, NY; Barbara Kelly-Sease, Union Industrial Home, Trenton, NJ; and Neil Tift, Fathers Resource Center, Minneapolis, MN.

Center for Successful Fathering: Dr. Ron Klinger, the president of the Center for Successful Fathering, spoke at an August 9 OCSE-sponsored forum. The Austin, Texas-based Center promotes fathers' involvement in their families and the lives of their children.

A Head Start Policy Council video-based training package has recently been completed. The 22-minute video features representative parents who provide leadership in local Policy Councils. It includes segments that portray strong male involvement in the Council structure, in the classrooms, and through the Fathers Advocating for Male Involvement in the Lives of Youth (FAMILY) sub-committee. The video and four two-hour training modules will be available to every Head Start program by the beginning of the 1997 calendar year. Training of Trainers in every Regional Office will also be conducted in the next few months.



2. Videos and Documentaries

Family Man, a 35-minute documentary video featuring the Baltimore Healthy Start Men's Services Program, has been produced by PBS with Coordination by the Family and Work Institute in New York and funding by the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Ford Foundation. The focus of the documentary is the importance of fathers in the lives of young children and the struggle men face in grappling with the responsibility of fatherhood. A PBS airing date is being determined and HUD is considering making the tape available to every public housing authority across the country.

Equal Partners: African-American Fathers and Systems of Health Care, a training video with study guide, portrays the unique challenges that African American fathers of children with special needs face when interacting with health care delivery systems. It offers insights into the perceptions of fathers and providers on the relationships that need to be developed in order to support and enhance parenting and self-esteem. Both the video and study guide offer positive images of African American men as being capable, nurturing and involved in the care of their children or grandchildren. Equal Partners was developed by James May of the National Fathers Network, produced by Emmy award winning film maker Pierce Atkins, and funded by MCHB/HRSA.



3. Work with Regional Offices

DHHS provided information to its regional offices about the fatherhood initiative and about activities to promote fatherhood at the program level.

ACF distributed Fathering: the Man and the Family to all of the DHHS Regional Offices.

ACF/OCSE has included information on fathering activities in weekly conference calls with the Regional Offices.





4. Utilize the Internet

Several agencies have included information on fathers and fathering on their Internet home page.

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation has posted Fathering: the Man and Family on its home page.

The Child Care Bureau/ACF continued to identify and post Fatherhood and Men's sites on the Internet.

In addition to posting its monthly Child Support Reports on the Internet, the Office of Child Support Enforcement has direct links to the nearly 25 states that have child support enforcement home pages.



5. Department of Justice Working Group on Families and the Criminal Justice System

DHHS/ASPE participated in a Department of Justice-sponsored steering committee meeting to examine the issues and problems families, especially children, face when a parent is imprisoned. The initial meeting was held in August. This is a priority issue identified by many members of the Work Group.


V. WORKFORCE INITIATIVES

DHHS will ensure that the workplace is supportive and responsive to the needs of employees raising children.



IDENTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE NEEDS

To meet the President's challenge of creating a family and father-friendly workplace, the Office of Human Resources, under the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget, has undertaken an assessment of the Department's work and family programs. The assessment included an employee survey about the awareness, need, and use of the options available to balance work and family life; focus groups to clarify the survey findings; and analysis of differing approaches taken by subcomponents of the Department.

The survey was slowed by furloughs and snow days, but was finally conducted in March, 1996. Surveys were distributed to a randomly selected sample of employees in both field and headquarters units. The return rate was 45%, and the demographic profile of respondents closely matched that of the Department as a whole.

Initial analysis of the data indicates that: employees are aware of and use many of the options provided; a supportive management climate correlates with greater option use; and the most important options were those that allow employees greater control over their work schedules.

Credit hours/compensatory time and flexitime were used by more than 50% of the respondents (64% and 52% respectively). No other options were reported as needed by more than 50% of the work force. Use of sick leave for bereavement and for dependent care also appear to be important in balancing work and family needs. Although there is a slight tendency for women to report a greater need for flexibility and special services like on-site child care, there were no meaningful differences between men and women in how they responded.

Initial results were shared with the Department's personnel officers in a meeting on September 26. Information regarding policy and implementation differences among the components has been collected and focus groups to clarify the survey findings have been conducted. Recommendations on any changes in personnel policies and programs will be will be included in a report due to the President in November.

The results of the assessment were shared with the Fathers' Work Group at the October meeting. The work group has asked OHR staff and its members to consider ways the Department could encourage fathers to take full advantage of the options available to them to help balance work and family life responsibilities.


APPENDIX A

THE OFFICE OF MINORITY HEALTH

" Series of HBCU Models to Prevent Minority Male Violence"

THE CONSORTIUM FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICUM

The Program

The Consortium for Research and Practicum was formalized in 1992 through a memorandum of understanding between 16 Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Three additional institutions joined the Consortium in March of 1995. At the time of it's inception, the Consortium members felt that Historically and Predominantly Black Colleges and Universities

should assume a major responsibility and lead role in developing and designing solutions to reduce anti-social behavior and violence affecting minority males and their families. It was the expressed intent of the Consortium to develop a major, comprehensive and community-based collaborative model program that would inhibit anti-social behavior and redirect individual energy towards strengthening families, particularly African-American and Latinos.

In June 1994 Central State University, on behalf of the 16 member Consortium for Research and Practicum, submitted a proposal to the Office of Minority Health, Department of Health and Human Services titled "A Series of Historical Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MIs) Models to Prevent Minority Male Violence". As the lead institution for the Consortium, Central State University administers the project through a management team, led by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Laxley Rodney, who is supported by technical and administrative staff. A 25 member National Advisory Council provides advice to the Management Team, the Office of Minority Health, and to the member institutions. The Management Team administers the project across the 19 institutions through four major components: Prevention, Research, Evaluation, and an Information Clearinghouse. At the campus of each of the 19 institutions, a Family Life Center (FLC) has been established to coordinate the development and implementation of violence prevention programs. The programs are focused on two levels: community-based activities and campus-based activities. The community-based program is designed to serve high risk youth, many of whom live in public housing. The campus-based programs are designed to develop leaders among college students to help reduce and prevent violence on campus and in the community served by the Consortium institution.

The Consortium members are:

Fatherhood Activity

As part of the community based activity some schools have implemented programs that encompass fathers. The Family Life Centers recognize that a father plays an important role in the foundation of a child's development. Programs also recognize that community and family violence inhibits family and community bonding and can lead to the exclusion of fathers from families and communities.

Conferences and Publications

1. First National Conference for Family and Community Violence Prevention

Atlanta, Georgia, October 1 - 3, 1995

2. First National Conference Proceeding

The Role of Fathers in Violence Prevention, Mr. Charles Ballard

President & Founder; Institute for Responsible Fatherhood and

Family Revitalization, Washington, D.C.

3. A Journal of Research on African American Men, Challenge

Special Edition for The MIN-MALE Consortium

4. Second National Conference on Family and Community Violence Prevention

Baltimore, Maryland, November 16 - 19, 1996

APPENDIX B

BARRIERS TO FATHER INVOLVEMENT

Meeting of DHHS Fatherhood Work Group and Fatherhood Program Practitioners

On May 13 the DHHS Fatherhood Work Group met with practitioners to understand fathers' perceptions of barriers to their involvement with their children, especially those barriers related to DHHS funded programs. Practitioners in attendance included Charles Ballard, National Institute for Responsible Fatherhood, Washington, DC; Jerry Hamilton, Disadvantaged Programs, Goodwill Industries, Racine, WI; Joe Jones, Healthy Start, Baltimore, MD; Wallace Mc Laughlin, Wishard Memorial Hospital, Indianapolis, IN; Ed Pitt, National Practitioners Network/Work and Family Institute, New York, New York; Benjamin Powell, Inwood House, Bronx, NY; Barbara Kelly-Sease, Union Industrial Home, Trenton, NJ; Neil Tift, Fathers Resource Center, Minneapolis, MN; and Ronald Mincey, Ford Foundation, NewYork, New York.

Wendell Primus, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Services Policy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, prefaced the discussion by noting that statutorily based federal policy on child support arrearages may discourage low income fathers with child support obligations, especially when the arrears obligation appears to have no relationship to the fathers ability to pay support; that the distribution policy of the child support enforcement program may be seen as a disincentive by some fathers who owe child support but see that little of the support they pay actually goes to their family; and that their should be fewer differences in the way the public policies treat noncustodial fathers and custodial fathers.

Central to the discussion was the assumption that children are better off when their fathers are involved. The practitioners very clearly voiced their belief that this is true even when fathers cannot significantly contribute to the financial support of their children. Most of the discussion by participants focused on barriers that prevented fathers from being more involved with their children: these included the accumulation of child support arrearages; relations between mothers and fathers, and how these might be improved; and incentives for fathers to become more involved in programs and with their families. The summary of the concerns voiced by the practitioners is arranged largely under these headings. An additional group of comments, which do not fit well under these three headings, is presented under "miscellaneous."

Child Support Arrearages

1. Federal policy on child support arrearages is inflexible and may discourage low income fathers who have child support obligations.

2. There is a perception that child support not paid on the first of month is "in arrears."

3. If arrearages build up to an amount that fathers cannot pay, relations between parents may be harmed.

4. A suggestion was made to treat the arrearages of young fathers similarly to student loans.

5. In some cases a father may not be aware of an arrearage until it's too late to do anything about it.



Relations between mothers and fathers

1. Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs should put the improvement of relations between mothers and fathers ahead of increasing support collections.

2. Agencies should remember that fathers frequently are involved with their families even though they may not be current in their support payments.

3. The Healthy Start program involves the father at the birth of the child and even includes room for father's contributions to the Health Diary mothers are asked to keep.

4. Shared parenting or "co-parenting" curriculum development, for which the Ford Foundation has provided funds, needs replicating around the country.

5. There are benefits for mothers in program staff involving them up-front when fathers are going into training programs, such as JOBS or Parents' Fair Share. This may result in long-term improvement in relations between the mother and the father.

6. Fathers support of mothers during pregnancy can benefit the health of the child.

7. Putting emphasis on relations between mothers and fathers may act as a prompt for mothers wanting to involve fathers in family.

8. A suggestion was made to "outsource" relational training to community based providers.

9. Services to fathers are best provided at the community level, using a "house to house" model.

10. Government has a role, but it's important to find the correct balance between the community and the authority of government.



Incentives for fathers

1. Give low-income fathers credit for time spent with their children. Too much emphasis on money alone can be an obstacle to fathers progress. Time credited could be treated as payment or part payment of support.

2. Provide insurance that would continue support payments when a father is unemployed. Also, it was suggested that insurance premiums count as part of the support payment.

3. CSE programs should provide services, such as job training, as incentives for fathers to pay support. Support obligation should be reduced while father is in training.

4. Fathers involvement with their families, other than payment of support, should be recognized by CSE programs.

5. Fathers would benefit from a nonadversarial CSE program environment.

6. Staff sometimes view involvement of fathers as additional work, a burden, rather than as an opportunity to bring families together.



Miscellaneous

1. CSE programs do not take account of cultural difference, for example, age disparities between older fathers and teen mothers may be viewed negatively by program officials even when such difference are acceptable within the community.

2. In fairness, noncustodial mothers should be held accountable for their behavior in the same way that noncustodial fathers are held accountable.

3. Staff may not appreciate the special needs and complexities of "multiple father families."

4. Welfare and child support enforcement programs should work to educate mothers in those programs on the importance of fathers to families.

5. Health programs for men, similar to those for women, are needed.

6. Placement of "Dad's Bulletin Boards" in schools, especially colleges, would be helpful.

7. Links need to be established between government and community programs.

REPORT TO THE FATHERS' WORK GROUP BY THE CONSUMER SERVICES SUB-GROUP

BARRIERS TO FATHER ACCESS: DHHS PROGRAMS

Statutory Programmatic/Regulatory Attitudinal
Categorical requirements may exclude fathers. Program brochures and materials may not be "father friendly" in use of words/themes, colors, and layout. Families are typically viewed as consisting only of mothers and children, with rare mention of fathers.
Statutory language may be lacking to "include" fathers in some programs. Program waiting areas are often "foreign" territory for fathers. Staff sometimes show insentivity to and negative attitudes toward fathers, especially minority males.
Gender neutral language is not included in all statutes. Office hours may not be convenient for working fathers, or for working parents in general. There is little or no personal outreach to fathers; reliance is often on forms and other written materials.
State privacy laws may prevent access to information for noncustodial parents in some health programs (e.g., Medicaid, Immigration). Programs have fewer services for fathers than for mothers, and staff may be more comfortable working with mothers. Our culture fails to promote fatherhood as a positive concept.
Confidentiality of medical records is a barrier in Medicaid and other health programs for noncustodial parents. In some programs there may be an emphasis on enforcement and rules, rather than on strengthening the father's role in families (e.g., CSE). Programs may discount the role of fathers in raising children. Service workers may view fathers "as the enemy." (Domestic violence issue.)
New ideas and resources regarding fathers may not move from the top down to the working level where they might be useful. Staff may mistrust fathers and be suspicious of their motives and issues. (Identifying oneself as a father can bring a "penalty" from the child support program.)
Programs may lack training resources that could help fathers become more involved (e.g., JOBS emphasis on mothers). Staff may manifest lack of concern for fathers and their needs.
At times, CSE emphasizes support to the exclusion of other issues, such as custody and visitation. Information is rarely disseminated to fathers.
Often there is little funding in programs for father-related activities or involvement. Are female staff more comfortable working with women than with men?
Programs are set up to serve mothers and children and may try to "protect" them from fathers. Fathers appear to be underrepresented on HHS-related commissions, study groups, and at conferences and meetings.
Do AFDC regulations discourage involvement of fathers and encourage break-up of families, or is this a myth? Father's "problems" are overemphasized, while their "contributions" tend to be ignored.
It may appear that the "rigid" policies of CSE tends to push fathers away. What does it really mean to "Put Children First?" Isn't it more than a matter of money? Negative language, such as "deadbeat dads," alienates fathers and may be hurtful to children, as well.
There tends to be little cooperation and coordination between programs that could serve fathers (e.g., CSE and Head Start). What is there for fathers to gain in becoming involved in some programs? There can be unintended consequences for them if the child support system, e.g., hears of them.
Service and enforcement programs are sometimes in conflict as to role fathers might play. Is it possible that mothers don't want to see fathers become involved with their families (gatekeeper role). This would involve shared decision-making. Does this offset how program services are delivered?
Programs frequently lack male staff, which may keep some fathers away. When fathers issues are recognized, what is the appropriate level of concern and focus with regard to low-income males? Middle class males? How should this be decided?
Programs sponsor few male oriented activities or family activities calcualted to attract males.

APPENDIX C

PREPARATORY WORK FOR THE CONFERENCE ON FATHERING AND MALE FERTILITY: IMPROVING DATA AND RESEARCH

MARCH 13 AND 14, 1997

In March of 1997, the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics in conjunction with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Fatherhood Initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services will sponsor a conference on the Measurement and Collection of Data on Fathering and Male Fertility. The Conference will produce an agenda for changes in the collection of information on fathering and male fertility within the federal statistical system and in other public and private data collection efforts.

The conference will be the culmination of a year long effort to improve the conceptualization, measurement and gathering of information from and about men. In March of 1996, the Forum sponsored a Town Meeting on Fathering and Male Fertility, inviting experts from the public and private sector to present ideas for improving the federal statistical system's capacity to gather data on fathers. In June, NICHD, the Federal Interagency Forum and the NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Research Network sponsored a Conference on Developmental, Ethnographic and Demographic Perspectives on Fatherhood. This conference examined the nature and relevance of interactions between fathers and children from developmental, anthropological, ethnographic and demographic perspectives. On October 10 and 11, 1996 the NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Network sponsored a Conference on Father Involvement at the Natcher Conference Center on the NIH Campus in Bethesda Maryland. The papers and discussions at this conference focused on what can be learnt from about father involvement using large-scale data sources and quantitative research methods. The conference was followed by a half day workshop on methodological issues.

In preparation for the March conference four working groups have been formed that use the information coming from the conferences and meetings on fatherhood and from private efforts, such as the National Center for Fathers and Families and the National Fatherhood Institute, to develop explicit recommendations on how to improve the federal statistics in regard to data on male fertility and fathering. Members of the working groups consist of experts from academia, government and the private sector. The groups will produce working papers that will be presented at the March. The papers will be the very heart of the conference and will identify opportunities and options for data collection. Each paper will contain the scientific arguments supporting each idea. The conference agenda will be built around the recommendations contained in these papers.

The recommendations will be brought to the Forum for consideration at their spring 1997 meeting. All working groups are considered subcommittees of the Forum's Fatherhood Project.

The efforts of the Federal Interagency Forum Fatherhood Project are being funded by NICHD, the NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Network, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Kaiser Foundation and through staff support from the Forum member agencies.

The four working groups, the chairs, who have agreed to serve and members are:

Federal Conference on Strengthening the Role of Fathers in Families

MAY 3, 1996

AGENDA

7:30 - 8:30 a.m.Registration

8:30 - 10:00 a.m.Opening Session - Main Auditorium

Welcome

Vivian L. Gadsden, Director, National Center on Fathers and Families

Interim Director, Philadelphia Children's Network

Remarks and Introduction of the Vice President

Donna E. Shalala, Secretary of Health & Human Services

Remarks

Vice President Al Gore

Interactive Conversation with Vice President Gore:

John H. Dalton, Secretary of the Navy

Capt. Gregory Bryant, U.S. Marine Corps

Gilberto Mario Moreno, Assistant Secretary for Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs, Department of Education

Donna E. Shalala, Secretary of Health & Human Services

Joe Jones, Baltimore City Healthy Start's Men's Services

Chaplain Gary P. Weeden, U.S. Coast Guard's - Dads University

Federico F. Pena, Secretary of Transportation

C. Coleman Harris, President, Mt.Vernon High School Parent, Teacher, Student Association

Henry G. Cisneros, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Victor Rush, Director, The Family Investment Center


10:30 - 12:00 p.m.Workshops - Session I

Working with Practitioners - Conf. Rooms Fl & F2

New Parent Support - Conf. Room B

Improving Federal Research on Fathers: Collaborative Strategies - Conf. Rooms Cl &C2

Fathers and Employment Strategies - Conf. Room El

Fathers' Roles in Children's Learning: Models that Work -

Auditorium Balcony B

Dads Do Count: Working with Nonresidential Fathers - Conf. Room A

Best Practices: Work and Family Programs - Conf. Room E2

12:00 - 1:00 p.m.Buffet Luncheon - Cafeteria

1:15 - 2:45 p.m.Workshops - Session 11

Adolescent Males: Preparation for Fatherhood - Auditorium Balcony B

Through a Child's Eyes: Why Fathers Matter - Auditorium Balcony A

Reunion and Re-Integration Support for Fathers - Conf. Rooms Fl&F2 Working with Foundations - Conf. Rooms Gl & G2

Telecommuting - Conf. Room B

Youth Violence - Conf. Room El

Fathers in Early Child Care - Conf. Rooms Cl &C2

2:45 - 4:00 p.m.Wrap Up Session - Main Auditorium

Remarks

Ken Canfield, President, National Center for Fathering

Elaine Kamarck, Senior Policy Advisor for the Vice President

Interactive Discussion with Audience

Facilitator

Vivian L. Gadsden, Director, National Center on Fathers and Families

Interim Director, Philadelphia Children's Network

Federal Conference on Strengthening the Role of Fathers in Families

10:30 - 12:00 p.m. WORKSHOP SESSION I

WORKING WITH PRACTITIONERS - Conference Rooms Fl & F2

Most communities probably have at least one program in existence that could serve as a springboard for a program to support fathers. In this session the National Practitioners Network for Fathers and Families (NPNFF) and the Father-to-Father Network will focus on the exciting things that are happening in the field. Both networks are composed of service providers, researchers, policy makers, and funders and will highlight programs at the local and national levels.

Jim A. Levine, Director, The Fatherhood Project, Families and Work Institute

Edward W. Pitt, Associate Director, The Fatherhood Project, Families and Work Institute

Beverly Godwin, National Performance Review


GETTING READY: NEW PARENT SUPPORT - Conference Room B

Most new parents need support and reassurance to fulfill their new responsibilities. This session highlights efforts by various departments to provide outreach and support services to new parents while seeking to engage fathers as full participants in the parenting process. A variety of programs, such as the New Parent Support program that seeks to prevent child abuse and enhances the fathers active involvement in parenting and nurturing, will be discussed. This workshop will also demonstrate how work environments can make adjustments to support efforts that proactively engage young and new fathers.

Lou Hessenflow, 89th Medical Group, Family Advocacy Program

Elizabeth Tuckermanty, National Program Leader, Families, 4-H and Nutrition

Donna Montegna, LCSW, Children Hospital

LTC Daniel McFerran, Department of Defense


IMPROVING FEDERAL RESEARCH ON FATHERS: COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIES - Conference - Rooms Cl & C2

This session explores the need for more father-focused federal research and presents strategies for overcoming barriers. The workshop will begin with a discussion of why federal research should focus more on fathers (married, divorced or never-married) and families. Panelists will describe data collection problems that impede our ability to collect detailed information about fathers, and also the issues involved in designing program evaluations that include father involvement. The workshop will conclude with a discussion of strategies that government agencies are using to improve federal research and collaborative efforts.

Jeff Evans, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, HHS

Anne Benson, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, HHS

Alan Ginsberg, Department of Education

Don Hernandez, Census Bureau

Matt Stagner, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, HHS


FATHERS AND EMPLOYMENT STRATEGIES - Conference Room El

Being able to provide for your children is at the core of many men's definition of successful fatherhood. But when a father is unemployed or underemployed, his ability to help his children may drive him away from any type of involvement or support. During the past several years, federal agencies in varied areas of public assistance have had very instructive experiences in developing employment strategies for fathers. Panelists will discuss effective strategies devised according to the employment and training needs of different types of low-income fathers, i.e., young fathers; non- Custodial fathers of children receiving public assistance; fathers with child support orders versus fathers without orders; fathers with skills; low-skilled fathers versus fathers with significant job experience. Examples of how government programs can improve the employability of low or no income fathers will be highlighted in this workshop.

Kilolo Kijukazi, USDA, Food and Consumer Service

John Jolly, Office of Community Services, HHS

Sharon Rowser, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation

Mark Fucello, Administration for Children and Families, HHS

Roxie Nicholson, Employment and Training Administration, Department of Labor

Barbara Cleveland, Office of Child Support Enforcement, HHS


FATHERS' ROLES IN CHILDREN'S LEARNING: MODELS THAT WORK- Auditorium Balcony A

One very effective way that fathers can help support their children is to become actively involved in helping their children learn. This session presents successful programs in the community that actively involve fathers in their children's education. These programs can be adapted by other community and school based programs as well as by employers who are looking for ways to strengthen fathers' roles in children's learning.

Marilyn Aklin, Executive Director, National Coalition of Title Il Chapter / Parents

Christopher L. Atchinson, Father

Menahem Herman, Office of the Under Secretary, Department of Education

Lynnette Pannucci, Even Start Coordinator

Larry C. Schrader, Principal and Director of Even Start, West Sand Lake Elementary School

Helen Taylor, Associate Commissioner, Head Start Bureau, HHS

Sheila Tucker, Director, St. Bernadine's Head Start & Adult Learning Center

Gilberto Mario Moreno, Assistant Secretary, Department of Education


DADS DO COUNT: WORKING WITH NONRESIDENTIAL FATHERS - Conference Room A

Child Support is often at the top of the list of ways that non-residential fathers are considered important in the lives of their children. Child support is not the only way that non-residential fathers' count. This session will discuss why it is important for employers and program managers to understand and address the concerns of fathers who are not living with their children. Unresolved child support, custody, and child access issues all can lead to reduced employee productivity and decreased program effectiveness. This workshop will outline strategies for helping to resolve and reduce conflicts and increase parental involvement and support.

David Levy, Library of Congress

Carol Williams, Children's Bureau, HHS

Sheck Chin, Office of Child Support Enforcement, HHS

David Gray Ross, Office of Child Support Enforcement, HHS


BEST PRACTICES: WORK AND FAMILY PROGRAMS - Conference Room E2

Raising a family is hard work. Families often need access to resources and referrals to help them manage a crisis or meet daily needs. Employers have begun to realize that family situations effect productivity and morale. This session will focus on developing work and family programs that support fathers in the workplace. Programs such as the Connection Customer Service Center will be highlighted with a discussion to follow on services and programs that are currently being offered.

Anice Nelson, Work & Family Program Center, Office of Personnel Management

Carol Neil, Work & Family Program Center, Central Intelligence Agency

Thomas Pugh, Project Office for Dependent Care, Social Security Administration

LCDR Gary P. Weeden, Chaplain Corps

Madeline Fried, Fried & Sher, Inc.

Suzette Paes, Team Leader, DOT Connection Customer Service Center


1:15 - 2:45 p.m.WORKSHOP SESSION II

ADOLESCENT MALES: PREPARATION FOR FATHERHOOD - Auditorium Balcony B

One important way to support and strengthen the role of fathers--and to promote responsible fatherhood--is to help young men postpone fatherhood until they are able to assume the role both financially and emotionally. This workshop addresses how programs working with youth can address such issues as ensuring that young men understand their responsibility in preventing early unintended pregnancies; ensuring opportunities for young men to continue and complete their education and obtain other necessary skills for employment; and for those young men who become fathers before they are ready, offering instruction on infant and child development and helping young men to develop effective parenting skills.

Susan Harding, DADS Program-Parent/Child Center

Walt Jones, Young Men as Fathers Program

Sheila Pierce, Famcare, Inc.

James Cox, Boys and Girls Club of America

Beverly Bachemin, Office of Policy Research, Department of Labor

Barbara Cohen, Office of Population Affairs, HHS


THROUGH A CHILD'S EYES: WHY FATHERS MATTER - Auditorium Balcony A

Research findings on the impact of fathers on children are ambiguous, but children and program practitioners positively attest to the difference that having a loving and caring father can make in a child's life. This session focuses on how a child's needs are met through the presence and support of a father. The discussion will center on research findings on father involvement and lessons learned from successful fatherhood programs that target families with diverse needs. The outcome will be to provide conference attendees with the background essential to adapting their programs so that greater support will be provided for fathers and their interaction with the child.

Vivian Gadsden, National Center on Fathers and Families/Philadelphia Children's Network

Charles Smith, Kansas State University/Kansas Cooperative Extension Service

Clarence Burris, Washington State Fathers Network

Marilyn Moses, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice

Linda Johnston, Matemal and Child Health Bureau, HHS


REUNION AND RE-INTEGRATION SUPPORT FOR FATHERS - Conference Rooms Fl & F2

Fathers may spend time away from their children for many reasons, including military deployments, civilian job transfers, overseas assignments, custody arrangements and institutionalization. This session highlights efforts by various departments to provide outreach and support services to fathers and families to ensure that the father's presence is retained. The workshop will include information that helps the father's reintegration back into the family in a healthy and positive manner.

LTC Bradley Nystrom, Chief, Army Community Service

Carol Williams, Associate Commissioner, Children's Bureau, HHS

LCDR Robert Williams, Pastoral Care, U.S. Navy

LTC Daniel McFerran, Department of Defense


WORKING WITH FOUNDATIONS - Conference Rooms GI & G2

This session will focus on the efforts of the Funders Collaborative, which provides technical assistance and funding to organizations that work with fathers and fragile families. Representatives from the Collaborative, which includes the Ford Foundation, the Charles Stewart Moft Foundation, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Dartmouth Foundation, will lead a discussion that highlights the critical elements of designing a program that effectively involves fathers.

Ellen Pagliaro, Planning Associate, The Annie E Casey Foundation

Ronald Mincy, Program Office for Employment & Welfare, The Ford Foundation

Gaynor McCown, Domestic Policy Council


TELECOMMUTING - Conference Room B

As more women enter the workforce, more child rearing responsibilities are shared by both mothers and fathers. To fulfill these responsibilities, fathers may need to reduce the amount of time spent at the office. This session incorporates both the "best practices" in federal telecommuting, highlights the National Telecommuting Initiative, and provides guidance on developing an action plan, recognizing that telecommuting will foster a family-friendly workplace and improves the quality of work life.

Ed Weiner, Senior Policy Analyst, Department of Transportation

Sue Sears, Public Relations Director, AT&T

Warren Master, Office of Workplace Initiatives, General Services Administration

Gail Batt, Agency Telecommuting Coordinator, Department of Transportation

Darryl Dobberfuhl, Telecommuting Services Project Manger, Loral Federal Systems


YOUTH VIOLENCE - Conference Room El

Many communities throughout the United States are struggling with how to keep families safe. This workshop will discuss how programs that focus on fathers of teens and teenaged fathers have the potential to dissuade violence in communities. Panelists will discuss a variety of programs, such as ones that deal with gang violence, to demonstrate that there are creative interventions that lessen violence in communities throughout the country.

Sarah Ingersoll, Special Assistant to the Administrator, OJJDP, Department of Justice

Gil Hall, SW Branch Director, Boys and Girls Club of Central Florida, Inc.

Tevitt Sullivan, Father, SW Branch boys and Girls Club of Central Florida, Inc.

Linda H. Lang, Director, Project D.A.R.E

Elaine Rodney, Professor, Central State University

Jimmy Cunningham, Director, Family Life Center at Philander-Smith College

Kent Markus, Counselor to the Attorney General for Youth Violence, Department of Justice


FATHERS IN EARLY CHILD CARE - Conference Rooms Cl & C2

With more mothers in the labor force there is an increased need for fathers to become active care- givers. This session focuses on the strategies being utilized to involve fathers in early child care, as well as other child development programs, that increase awareness to the benefits children derive from male participation. The workshop will offer practical information on how to get fathers involved in early childhood programs; how to promote staff-father interactions; and how to create specific strategies that increase opportunities for father involvement. The workshop will also include a discussion on "lessons learned" from existing model programs.

James A. Levine, Director, The Fatherhood Project, Work & Families Institute

Teresa Rafael, Parents Anonymous, Inc.

Gregory Martin, Life Roots, Philadelphia Child Guidance Center

Joan Lombardi, Child Care Bureau, HHS